Acoustic sensing techniques for the shallow water by Andrea Caiti, N. Ross Chapman, Jean-Pierre Hermand, Sérgio

By Andrea Caiti, N. Ross Chapman, Jean-Pierre Hermand, Sérgio M. Jesus

Acoustic distant sensing of the sea surroundings has obvious a awesome growth within the final ten–fifteen yr because of an expanding figuring out of the experimental recommendations and techniques and of the subtleties of the interplay of sound with complicated actual and organic strategies. this can be rather real within the shallow water setting, the place acoustic equipment have the aptitude to permit for a quick and actual characterization and review of our environment. to study the state-of-the-art and the study growth within the box, a workshop was once held within the island of Ischia, Italy, in June 2004. distinct emphasis has been put on the experimental functions, to realistically examine their strength and functions of the equipment proposed. This quantity, in accordance with the workshop displays, comprise a number assorted and leading edge functions, in addition to comparisons within the box between competing methods and assessment papers.

The invited contributions variety from ocean acoustic tomography to estimation of the seabed and subbottom homes, to marine biology; ambient noise within the ocean is more and more being investigated as a substitute for standard acoustic resource, to make acoustic inversion even much less invasive and extra environmentally pleasant as a technique to probe the sea.

Audience: This publication is essentially meant for physicists and engineers operating in underwater acoustics and oceanic engineering. it is going to even be of curiosity to marine biologists, geophysicists and oceanographers as strength clients of the methodologies and strategies defined within the publication contributions.

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Extra resources for Acoustic sensing techniques for the shallow water environment: inversiton methods and experiments

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Correct and stable inversion results were possible even from a sparse but representative set of hydrological data. In contrast to MFP large and densely-populated receiver arrays are not necessary. In [59] geoacoustic inversion results were obtained with a fixed source and a single hydrophone or very few elements of a VRA. The concept of MBMF does not necessarily impose to include all propagation paths or modes in the reference signal. For example, in a source localisation experiment [20] eigenray filtering was used to include only the ducted part of the propagation.

35-m depth). The magnitude of the reflection coefficient was computed as the ratio of the bottomreflected to direct arrival energy, corrected for source directivity and geometric spreading. To restrict data sensitivity to surficial sediments near the water-sediment interface, the recorded acoustic time series were windowed to extract energy from the initial bottom reflection, and frequency averaged. Figure 2 shows the measured data with experimental error bars (described below). The data clearly illustrate angle-of-intromission and critical-angle behaviour at the clay and sand sites, respectively.

Tolstoy [5] gives an overview of the early work on standard MFP and its use in underwater acoustics. In addition, the paper by Baggeroer et al. [6] reviews several experiments using MFP. Also the special issues of the IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering [7, 8, 9] and a number of conference proceedings [10, 11, 12] provide a good overview of the applications of both, matched field processing and linear inverse methods with experimental data in shallow water, especially for characterising the ocean bottom.

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